Millennium Development Goals
“Now is the time for equity, inclusion, sustainability and women’s empowerment. Achieving all the MDGs will require extra effort. Even where we have seen rapid growth, as in East Asia and other parts of the developing world, progress is not universal, nor are the benefits evenly shared”.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Millennium Development Goals
At the United Nations Summit in 2000, heads of state representing 189 countries signed the Millennium declaration. Thereby, they committed themselves to a set of eight time-bound targets that, when achieved, will end extreme poverty worldwide by 2015. The first seven Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) commit the world leaders to raise the poor out of poverty and hunger, get every child into school, empower women, reduce child mortality, improve maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases, and ensure environmental sustainability. Goal 8 explicitly recognizes that eradicating poverty worldwide can be achieved only through a global partnership for development. As the global development network of the UN, the UNDP links and coordinates global and national efforts to reach the Millennium goals. UNDP Helen Clark, in her capacity as chair of the UN Development Group, is committed to make the MDGs an integral part of the UN’s work worldwide.
How is UNDP Helping Achieve the MDGs?
UNDP is actively supporting the country achieve the MDGs and it is doing so in three main ways:
- By aligning all UNDP activities with the Millennium Development Goals and ensuring that every project and programme is designed to meet the challenges of MDG-related issues at the country level.
- By cooperating with other UN agencies and the international community, UNDP helps the government harness foreign assistance in a more rational way in order to achieve the goals.
- And by coordinating tracking and reporting efforts.
About the Millennium Development Goals process in Tajikistan
Tajikistan MDG progress report provides the information about the progress of achievement on MDG for the period of 2000-2010. It aims to assess the impact of the global financial and economic crisis on the pace and progress towards the MDGs in Tajikistan. In addition, it provides a detailed summary of the new challenges, such as the lowered level of education of young people, increased unemployment, a worsening in drinking water quality, deterioration of sanitation, the difficulties with energy supply, onset and the rapid spread of infectious diseases, malnutrition prevalence and food crisis, among others. Also there are other risks and threats emerged mainly because of the 2008-2009 economic crises and are persistent to date and the progress made in previous years might lose its momentum in a short period of time.
This Country Report – 2010 belongs to the “second generation” of MDG Reports and focuses on raising public awareness and social mobilization through in-depth analysis of the current and recently emerged trends, rooted in the global financial and economic crisis. The report of 2010 compared with two previous reports done back in 2003 and 2005 was more dramatic by its nature with an articulated concern that many of the targets to achieve the MDGs by 2015 would remain unmet.
The analysis conducted under this report shows that there are various intensities of progress, not only by the MDGs, but also by individual indicators. For Tajikistan, such problems include, inter alia: broadening gaps in socio-economic development between this country and highly advanced countries in the region, the continent and world; widening of income and consumption gaps between the decile groups; deteriorating health and education services, and students' learning; worsening of child and maternal health indicators; high infant and maternal mortality rates; environmental degradation; reduced forest areas; increasing erosion of pastures, hillsides and frequency of natural disasters; inequalities in education, employment and training of women, and their low representation in the government authorities; an increased volume of external borrowing; the deteriorating structure of the government debt; a reduction of foreign direct investment; and the lack of coordination among international and foreign organizations operating in Tajikistan.
This report concludes about the relevance of establishing the effective mechanisms and tools in order to address the challenges and risks faced by the country under new circumstances, making it difficult to achieve the MDGs. The below is the summary on each goal of MDG.
Goal 1. As for the Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger the progress made looks satisfactory. The annual rate of decline in overall poverty was 3.3% and there is every reason to assert that by 2015 in Tajikistan this level will be below the poverty line specified in the MDG, i.e. 41.5%. Between 1999-2009, the number of people living with less than $2.15 per day decreased from 81 per cent (1999) to 51 per cent (2009). The same is true saying about extreme poverty reduction. However, the trends of food consumption structure and quality are slowly changing to better. According to the World Food Program, caloric consumption level in Tajikistan is estimated as the consumption of the poor. It is hardly possible to radically change this situation by 2015.
Goal 2. The situation with Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education remains critical. Public spending on education accounts for 4.1% of GDP and 14.0% of total government expenditure, which is much lower compared to 1991. Only 66% of boys and 15% of girls after completing basic school (nine years) continue their studies to receive general secondary education (including primary vocational education). According to expert estimate, quality education indicators and full coverage of boys and girls in secondary education are unlikely to be reached by 2015 in Tajikistan.
Goal 3. As for Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women, the bulk of the targets to ensure gender equality under the inertial development scenario over the next five years will not be achieved. Unfortunately, some indicators for 2008 compared with 2000 even declined (the ratio of boys and girls in secondary education, the proportion of women in both houses of the national legislature).
Goal 4. Preliminary analysis shows that Goal 4 Reduce child mortality by the end of the period is unlikely to reach the planned targets by its two key indicators - the mortality rate of children under 5 and infant mortality rate. For the last 20 years the first indicator has fallen only by half and the second indicator has decreased by 46.3%. In the remaining five years, with no additional measures achievement of the planned targets at 35.0% and 44.2%, respectively, is unlikely to become a reality.
Goal 5. As far as Goal 5 Improve Maternal Health, it seems more than a dramatic one, requiring immediate interventions. By 2009 maternal mortality rate was 4.1% higher compared to the early 90-ies (if no higher given that in the rural areas the information on the death cases is increasingly getting uncertain). In the coming 5 years the 2.9-fold reduction of maternal mortality is hardly achievable.
Goal 6. Similar trends are in Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other major diseases. Only in the 2000's the number of patients with HIV / AIDS and TB has increased by 149.8 and 2.1 times respectively (per 100,000 population). Rapid reduction of the HIV\AIDS cases can be feasible through introduced innovations. As far TB cases their number can be reduced by implementation of the radical measures aimed at abrupt change of dietary energy consumption structure.
Goal 7. Definite progress is recorded in meeting the targets towards Goal 7 Land areas covered by forests. Land area covered by forests and nature protection zones are expanding. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have been sharply declined with increased energy efficiency (kg of oil per $ 1 GDP). However, such indicators as access to clean water sources and improved sanitation have either deteriorated or slightly increased. In 2000 under the first indicator only 3.3% of the population had access to the improved water source, and under the second indicator the proportion of population having access to improved sanitation declined by 36,8%. Improving the situation by 2015 seems hardly possible.
Goal 8. In terms of Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for development, multidirectional trends can be observed. The external debt grew by 70% and crossed the threshold of economic security. Government spending on pharmaceutical drugs per capita has decreased by 24.2%. At the same time, the unemployment rate fell to 3.47 times, while the number of fixed and mobile phones per 1,000 people has 12.2 times increased.